With the shift away from expansionism at the end of the 19th century, U.S. foreign policy assumed new forms. Marine occupations, dollar diplomacy, covert action, and economic interventions took the place of territorial annexations. How were these policies experienced on the ground? In what ways did they shape debates about Latin American identity, sovereignty, and the role of resistance movements? We will examine the genealogy of anti-imperialism from the armed to the unarmed, from the statist to the grassroots, and set the stage for where these resistant currents might flow in Latin America’s current turn to the right.